Light, smooth-textured hot-pressed composition
introduced in 1916.
Fine-grained sulphate of lime that was ideal
for carving. Also used by doll-makers to describe heads cast in
plaster of paris.
Needlepoint lace outlined with cord.
Describes a complete doll made of bisque; usually
small dolls 8 inches or less in height.
Dark, almond-shaped fixed eyes used by Jumeau.
Dolls with this type of eyes usually have 'early' ball-jointed
Soft hair from goat used for early doll wigs.
Item over 75 years old.
Ears attached separately after the moulding
of the heads. Used on high quality (usually large) dolls.
Inner frame of wire, metal or wood.
Can refer to child dolls designed by artists,
or to adult boudoir-type dolls made in stylized manner.
Manner in which bodies and limbs were joined
to provide movement.
Hat with tight, turned-back brim and slightly
Babyland Rag Dolls
Made by Horsman with painted faces but sometimes
used to describe any doll of similar type.
A dust ruffle or frill, as of silk or lace, sewed
close to the lower edge of a skirt on the inside.
Dolls with smooth, fully-moulded heads.
Low boots that lace up front. Typical Victorian
style ladies boot.
Scarf wrapped around head and over a hat; [bashlyk:
an ancient round topped felt bonnet with lappets; bachlik:
a hood attached to a cap... Balkans].
Extension of close-fitting bodice below the waistline.
Semi-sheer,lightweight cotton fabric
Curtain across the back of bonnet to shade neck.
Child-like doll with double-jointed or leather
Bébé de chant
Heavy fabric with a lengthwise (warp) ribbed
weave that resembles corduroy.
Narrow brimmed hat worn by British Yeoman of
the Guard and Warders of the Tower of London since the 16thC..
Flat topped medium high crown gathered into a headband.
Pocket made with bellow-like pleats.
Bald-headed, French bisque doll. Small holes
in crown, possibly for attaching wig or for stringing. [Belton
was an early partner of Jumeau, but no connection to these bald-headed
dolls has been found].
Bent-limbed baby body
Baby-type body intended to be in sitting position.
Flat circle or pancake-shape hat of felt, felted
jersey or fabric, with or without a band. It was shown in 1911
and may have been used before that. Large beret is called a tam-o'-shanter.
Moulded porcelain shoulder heads with soft pink
Lace or ornamental collar around shoulders.
Porcelain dolls with a round black spot on pate.
Used by German collectors to refer to any glazed porcelain dolls.
Other collectors describe any dolls made between 1805 and 1840
Coif like cap with ties under the chin, 16 &
17thC; large mob cap.
Full sleeves gathered in wristband.
Unglazed (white) porcelain (when not soup); [a
corruption of biscuit].
Type of bulb used with dolls to see repairs through
Blonde bisque type
Used to describe pink-tinted, unglazed heads
with moulded hair and shoulder plate.
Bodice that usually blouses at waistline.
Bodice that blouses over waistline.
Blown (glass) eyes
Round glass eyes with stem where blow pipe was
broken off. Eye looks like tiny Christmas ball. Used mainly in
German dolls and dolls with sleep eyes.
Rosy colour applied as cheek colour or over eyes
The soft colour applied to the backs of dolls'
hands and tops of feet.
Oval, flat-topped hat with rigid flat brim, typically
made of straw braid sailor or a skimmer.
Upper part of dress or underwear.
A very short jacket worn open in the front; hat
with conical crown and small brim (when not a dance).
Dolls having moulded hats or bonnets.
Term to describe lady-dolls made in early twentieth
century as mascots for adults.
Over-the-shoulder decoration or decorated suspenders.
Heavy silk with a textured pattern.
White embroidery, often with eyelets.
Stiff, coarse, inexpensive cotton, heavily sized.
American term for shoulder heads.
Slightly lustered cotton fabric.
American term for inexpensive all-bisques in
Bonnet with soft crown and stiff brim 19thC;
also cape or overcape.
Very small dolls in leather cases to amuse on
Bisque or composition figures made in imitation
of cartoon characters of twentieth century.
Cascades (of lace)
Many rows of gathered lace.
Soft, lightweight, smooth material of twill weave,
Type of brush used for painting mouths on dolls.
Any fired clay product.
Soft, light, silk-and-wool or wool-and-cotton
Literally "hat"; any fancy French hat
First made by Marion Kaulitz in Munich, but now
used mainly to describe bisque-headed dolls with realistic expressions
made after 1909.
Plain dress doll wore when it was sold; undergarment
covering top part of body.
Double-jointed or leather-bodied little girl
Fine white clay.
American term for glazed porcelain, shoulder-headed
Large round brush with soft bristles used to
apply face blush on dolls.
Lower arms and legs of porcelain.
Thin, plain silk with slight luster.
Loose-fitting outer garment.
Stocking decorations running up from the ankle.
Doll with lips modeled together.
Sleeves with two seams. Used on dresses and coats.
Long-faced doll with two-tone mouth (Jumeau
Triste). After Buffalo Bill Cody who returned to America from
Paris in 1887 with a doll of this type for his daughters.
Doll between 35 and 75 years old (Moot). Or any
Places where cheek color is rubbed through to
expose white bisque.
Painted rag. American, circa 1900.
Underbodice with attached drawers.
Can refer to any mixture of wood or paper pulp
with glue as binder. Papier mâché is sometimes included.
Pyramid of clay that melts at an exact temperature;
used for testing kiln temperatures.
description means clothing made within 10 years
of time doll was made, but not doll's original clothes.
Has large, sideways-glancing eyes, painted or
Fabric of body printed with a corset
Designer of fashions for women.
Figures made for use in crêche scenes (Christmas
Petticoat made of horsehair or hoop petticoat.
All-bisque figures made in Germany. Similar to
Kewpies, with sideways- glancing eyes, but without wings or quiff.
Method of cutting bisque heads at the crown.
Those cut well away at a sharp angle are more highly thought of.
Cuplike wood pieces inserted in legs and arms
to make joints work better. Also used as reinforcement.
Brocade silk fabric.
Small train resulting from fullness at back of
Deponiert (German) or Deposé (French).
Indicates a registered design or trade-mark. French doll makers
used this term on heads and shoes.
German dolls with plump cheeks, open mouths and
teeth. They were not modeled after a child, but were an idealized
portrait of a child of no particular age.
Doll's birthmark or company identification letters,
size and mold numbers.
Dorset Thread Button
Button made of flat metal disk covered with threads
radiating from center hole. Thread is wound through hole until
no disk shows. Often elaborate designs were worked out with more
than one color of thread. Buttons were used on clothing and shoes.
Decoration made by pulling thread out of fabric
and hand-stitching remaining thread to make design.
Parts of body pivot around a wooden ball. Another
term for "ball-jointed".
Used loosely to describe all types of cheap,
jointed, wooden dolls; [Corruption of German word Deutsch].
Opaque body of common clay.
Ribbon with designs embroidered on or woven in,
used as decoration around skirts and as braid on sleeves.
Fine-mesh fabric made of cotton; background fabric
of many types of lace.
Skirt trim imitating an apron.
Limbs have sew holes that are protected by metal
eyelets. Used on quality wax dolls.
Manufacturer of dolls.
Ribbed silk fabric recognized by its cord surface.
Lustrous cotton fabric used for lining.
Used to describe French lady-dolls of late nineteenth
century. More correctly used as a description for genuine mannequin
Fine lines of eyebrow.
Scarf worn at shoulders or neckline.
Heat clay to vitrification.
Name sometimes given to jointed wooden dolls.
Neck that opens out at lower edge to be held
in place by cloth bodies.
1920's-type dolls with long, shapely legs. Especially
used to refer to all-bisques of this type.
Eyes that move from side to side.
Method of simulating hair on baby or boy dolls
by coating head with glue and attaching powdered felt.
Porcelain heads with moulded flowers forming
Glasslike substance that makes colors flow when
melted with heat. Also makes colors glossy.
Cord fringe with knots used as trim.
Doll's head mounted on stick. The fabric costume
conceals a squeaker.
Describes fmgers of early wooden dolls that are
close together and stick-1ike.
Any type of doll that carries an assortment of
written predictions. The leaves often form the skirt.
Lightweight silk with plain twill or satin weave.
Late nineteenth-century doll-makers described
any quality bisque in this way.
Dress with back closure.
Immobile figures of indeterminate sex. Usually
white porcelain with black, or more rarely, yellow hair.
Made by cutting ribbon lengthwise, then using
heat to melt edge slightly. Only inexpensive ribbon has fused
Covering for lower leg and top of foot.
Porcelain screen or rack. Wafer of un- fired
porcelain is placed on screen or rack, along with greenware heads,
for firing. GESSO. Fine plaster used to give a good surface for
Jointed wire body that was padded and covered
Bisque lady-clolls made by Kestner and based
on portraits of C. D. Gibson. Also commonly used to describe any
lady-dolls of Edwardian period, whose features resemble those
of the ladies in The Social Ladder by Charles Dana Gibson, printed
Shoulder pleats stitched to yoke depth.
Long sleeves, full in the upper part and tight
The glass-like finish applied to earthenware
and porcelain, impervious to liquid and smooth to touch.
Unnatural, large round eyes, usually sideways
glancing. Good examples have eyes that move by action of lever.
Japanese court or Palace dolls.
Dress, usually with front closure.
Unfired porcelain shape made by pouring slip
Gretchen Dress-Dress hanging freely from yoke; bodice with high
Jointed wooden dolls. Early nineteenth century.
Usually have yellow or gilt combs in hair.
Ribbed fabric. Cords are heavier than poplin,
rounder than faille.
Heavy ribbon with rib running across it used
for doll belts, bonnet ties and braid on costumes.
Bodice worn under a jumper or low-necked dress.
Leather body with insets at joints to allow for
Rubber-type substance obtained from Malaya.
Wide-brim hat with ties extending over the top
of the crown and brim, often worn by Gibson-Girl dolls.
Tiny crack in bisque.
Type of lace made using hairpins.
Head and torso moulded in one to waist. Fabric
upper arms and legs.
Based on drawings by Kate Jordan. Only the arms
move. Made in Germanyafter 1914.
Hard paste porcelain
True translucent porcelain made of kaolin, china
clay and flux.
Tops of bisque heads were left open to fit eye
mechanisms and reduce weight. The gap was covered by head cones
(pates) of cardboard or, in better dolls, cork. Kestner used plaster
Tight-fitting bonnet with no brim.
A stylized method of carving the feet of wooden
dolls in the eighteenth century.
Underpetticoat with hoops of cane, wire or bone.
Black Kewpies made after 1913.
Flat, woven baskets that doll heads were dried
Very hard plaster used to make master molds.
All-bisques in fixed positions. No moving parts.
Literally "unbreakable", but used by
many French makers to describe bébés.
Indented into, as numbers pressed into unfired
Lace intended to be used between two pieces of
fabric rather than as an edging; the style of the lace is the
same on both edges.
Incised. Used particularly to describe painted
dolls' eyes with incised detail.
Refers usually to dolls with a choice of separate
heads. Often sold in box with one body and 3 heads.
Woven of two colors of silk to give it a changeable
Colored part of eye.
Shoulder head embedded with glass to give the
effect of a necklace.
Short for "Jeune" meaning the younger
or junior as in Bru Jne.
Makers used term to describe any moving part,
but now used by collectors to describe dolls with moving limbs.
Jointed figure of wood or card activated by pulling
Collectors jargon for Kämmer and Reinhardt
model '100', known to the firm as 'Baby'.
Pure-white clay used for making dolls.
Large wood tubs in which clay was left to soak
in preparation for making doll heads.
Designed by Rose O'Neill. Have small blue wings
and starfish or 'webbed' hands. Hair in quiff.
Furnace designed to heat clay objects to vitrification.
Wood was used to heat most old doll kilns, but modern kilns are
Right arm and hand raise to touch lips and throw
a kiss. Put into action by pulling string.
Cotton fabric similar to linen; very fine woven
Pantalets without body section, only legs.
Decayed vegetation, often found in prepared porcelain
London rag doll (baby)
Wax dolls whose faces were covered by a layer
of muslin. Nineteenth century.
Decoration of pottery or porcelain by means of
a thin film of metal.
Madame Bourget dolls.
Wooden dolls made in twentieth century in style
of eighteenth century.
Lay figure of an artist or male doll used to
Small or short mantle, usually deeper in back.
Porcelain shoulder heads with large daisies forming
Head or complete doll mounted on a musical box
which is activated when stick on which parts are assembled is
Printed or moulded front of head fixed to stuffed
Mould used to produce other moulds. Originally
made of hydrocal but now made of rubber.
Nest of wooden dolls. Russian.
Small French pocket-sized doll no more than 20cm
Dark spots that appear on finished ware, usually
caused when porcelain is underfired.
Small French dolls under 14 inches tall.
Term coined by Eleanor St George to describe
papier mâché dolls of early nineteenth century, with
moulded hair .
Type of colored composition developed by us for
making reproduction doll bodies.
When applied to dolls, it means "unplayed-with"
Gathered circle, usually trimmed with lace. Biggin
is an extra-large mob cap.
Thin, lustrous silk fabric.
Doll less than 25 years old.
Corded silk or silk-and-cotton fabric with water-
Water-marked ribbon similar to moire silk. Markings
come out if pressed with hot iron.
Soft luxurious hair from the Angora goat. Used
for doll wigs.
Dolls with hair formed in the mold. Hair was
Free-hanging dress, cloak or night- gown gathered
Dolls made in Europe after 1851 in imitation
of Japanese baby dolls. Fabric inserts in porcelain body sections
Teeth moulded in one with the head rather than
inserted as in cheaper dolls.
Tongue that is either moulded
in one with lower lip, as in an open-mouthed doll, or protruding
slightly from an 'open-closed' mouth.
Decoration suggesting lace collars, etc., found
on good bisque shoulder heads.
Mousseline(s) de soie
Sheer silk fabric similar to chiffon; (literally
"muslin of silk").
Several dolls patented with moving teeth or lips.
All-bisque dolls whose heads were fixed to immobile
bodies by elastic.
Several faces on sides of one head that are
turned by a knob at the top of the head or by a string.
A selection of wigs sometimes
accompanied better-quality dolls.
In the UK refers to a thin loose-weave fabric
In America used to describe any of various sturdy cotton fabrics
of plain weave, used especially for sheets. This term is very
confusing for the English when used in quilting.
Thin, lightweight cotton.
Moulded necklace on shoulder plate.
Modelling of features of cloth-faced dolls by
Ne Plus Ultra joints
Patented in the United States by Sarah Robinson
in 1883. Usually a rivet hip joint used on leather bodies, but
sometimes also used at knee and elbow.
Used by Käthe Kruse for waterproof dolls'
heads which were stuffed with deer hair and reinforced with metal.
Dolls whose heads nod on a pivot. Usually mantelpiece
Hat with high, half-moon-shape puffed crown with
many variations of brims.
Lightweight wool fabric made with plain weave
in plain colors, similar to wool batiste.
Mouth-Lips parted as if open, but no opening
Sheer, stiff, lightweight cotton.
Artist's modeled doll or doll head used to make
Similar to paperweight eyes, but no crystal added
over pupil. Used mainly in antique lady dolls and some very early
Small, flat knife, similar to spreader, used
True mannequin dolls. Usually full or half life-size.
A Jumping Jack.
Term for good-quality, early, flat-backed type
of eye. Almond-shaped, with bulge over eyeball of crystal. giving
depth to eyes. Usually only on French dolls or dolls for the French
Paper reduced to fibrous pulp, mixed with chalk
and sand. Used by doll-collectors to refer to dolls of the 'Milliners
White, unglazed porcelain as used for moulded
French lady-dolls of the late nineteenth century.
Old term used for soft clay pressed in molds.
The crown of the head. Cork or other substance
used to round top of head where bisque was cut off. Often cork
for French dolls and cardboard for German dolls.
Peau de Soie-Heavy silk with fine, grainy surface produced by
tiny cords. Long-wearing and serviceable.
Dolls that have a tray
or basket containing goods for sale.
Can refer to pegs holding elastic for stringing
or small, dowel-type jointing as used in Grödnertals or Wooden
An outergarment or coat, for either men or women.
Pelisses could have long sleeves or no sleeves at all. The pelisse
was fitted across the chest and could be any length between mid
thigh and ankle. Pelisses were often trimmed with fur or military-style
frogging and braiding. Compare pilisse.
Used here to describe mid-nineteenth-century
dolls of similar quality to Grödnertals, but without the
Cotton fabric with plain weave, usually recognized
by firm construction, smooth, dull finish and printed pattern.
Also available in plain colors.
Underskirt with waistband.
Ornamental bisque figurines, often immobile.
Small figures of wood or card with bristle legs,
that appear to dance when piano keys are moved. Also known as
Pigmées Musico Dancemanes.
Ribbon with looped thread along both edges, used
to tie bonnets, edge dresses and sashes.
Hat or bonnet with wide, off-the-face brim.
Usually refers to early nineteenth-century waxed
dolls, with turned-in toes, caused by the structure of their fabric
Cloak with cape.
Ornamental half figures of bisque or porcelain.
Could be fixed to pincushions, crumb brushes, vanity bags or lampshades.
Very delicate, uneven pink
shading to basic white-glazed porcelain heads.
Long petticoat slit down front. Made to wrap
around and over infant's legs.
Weave similar to plain fabric. Silk ribbon is
often plain woven. These ribbons are good for thread pulling.
Reverse form of doll made of plaster of Paris
used to duplicate shape. Doll heads were produced by pouring molds
with liquid clay.
Panel of contrasting-color fabric down the front
of dress or bodice.
Ribbon with bit of ruffling on one or both sides,
used on bonnets and dresses for decoration.
Hat with projecting front brim, high, rising
small crown and ties under chin.
Dress with overskirt draped in back.
Red paint used to give rosiness to cheeks and
lips. Used on antique and reproduc- tion dolls.
Mediumweight silk fabric in plain weave distinguished
by irregular threads and natural beige color.
Fine-ribbed silk, wool or cotton fabric.
Form of liquid clay made by adding water
to porcelain. Slip is poured into molds. This replaced method
of pressing paste clay in molds.
Head modelled on a known person, e.g.
Lord Roberts or Sara Penfold. Erroneously used to describe a miscellany
of bisque and porcelain heads that have a slight resemblance to
beauties of the period, e.g. Alexandra, Eugenie or Jenny Lind.
Chemical added to wood chips to make doll's hands
hard and less breakable. Used by Jumeau.
Wad of wool inside china-silk covering
used to apply cheek colour to porcelain dolls with a light, gentle
up-and-down dabbing motion.
Doll's head mounted on stick. Musical movement
or squeaker concealed under clothes. Also a swaddling baby of
wood or composition.
Usually refers to bisque-headed doll with a pouting
expression and closed mouth.
Pre-coloured or self-coloured bisque
Pink colouring in substance of bisque rather
Princess Style-Gored, flowing style without waistline.
Refers to rag dolls bought in sheet form.
Waxed composition with blonde, moulded hair.
Heads made in shallow, two-part moulds and consequently present
a flattened appearance. Also squash heads.
Black center of doll eye.
Queen Anne Collar
Built up, as numbers on head raised above surface.
Exact copy. Doll made in mould made from old
doll, with identical painting, and clearly marked with date and
Tongue pivots back into mouth when doll is laid
Rococo and variegated ribbon
Ribbons that change color. Rococo changes when
moved from side to side. Variegated changes when moved from end
Child's garment with bloomers instead of skirt
Set into wax or plastic material, either singly
or in tufts. Lashes, eyebrows and beards could all be treated
Figures of Dutch origin dressed completely in
fur. Were attendants to Santa Claus.
A doll whose head was weighted with sand. Made
by Käthe Kruse.
A twilled fabric which uses different colors
in the warp and weft, thus allowing the fabric to subtly change
colors as the fabric moves (variously, sarsenet, sarcenet). Americans
imply cotton but old English use seems to mean a fine silk used
Cotton fabric with luster on right-side. Used
for dressing French dolls.
Lustrous silk material in satin weave.
Ribbon with shiny. smooth surface. which can
be on one or both sides of the ribbon. It is the most- common
ribbon used on dolls. Terms single-faced and double-faced are
used with satin. meaning it is shiny on one or both sides.
Moulded shoulder heads wearing a scarf
Method of fixed wooden or composition arms to
a body of leather or cloth, 1884.
Light fabric of linen, cotton, (or rayon) usually
striped and slightly puckered
Puckered ribbon as above that does not lie flat
because thread in some sections are drawn tighter. It is used
most often as dress decoration and braid.
Eyes that do not move. Stationary eyes. Fixed
Dressed dolls whose costume is a holder for scissors,
(French). Without government guarantee. (Used
in conjunction with Breveté).
Chemise or underskirt.
Head and shoulder plate of same substance.
Sewn or stuck to body.
Carved, one-piece wooden dolls of primitive
Eyes that open and close.
All-bisque figures wearing snow suits of grog.
Can be wire-jointed, or, more usually, immobile.
Embryonic hands where only the thumb is carved
Early 20th C. Hands modelled to look almost webbed.
As in Kewpies.
Boots and stockings form an integral part of
the lower legs.
Arms and legs move only at shoulders and hip.
Terms for dolls whose heads are moulded
in one wid1 body. Usually refers to all-bisques.
Omamental. stiffened panel work used as front
Legs modelled almost straight so that
the doll can stand.
Unjointed wrists; also called gauntlet-type wrists.
Bisque loops modelled in one with limbs for neater
stringing of all-bisques.Some baby dolls
made by Heubach have stringing loop on neck.
Figurines that sway from side to side.
Turn in socket at base.
The top part of the arm or leg of a Grödnertal
that fits into the torso and allows movement.
Plain. closely woven. stiff silk fabric with
Inexpensive gauzelike fabric used to dress German
Plump, double-jointed body, often with shaped
thighs to fit neatly against body.
See under Frozen Charlottes.
Combination undergarment; (when not a bear).
Fired red clay.
Jumeau mark. Tête Jumeau. (literally "head").
German all-bisque with well-moulded hand. Thumb
fits into open mouth. Some have rubber hands.
Small. round. close-fitting French hat with or
Doll with head at top and bottom. Unwanted head
covered by skirt.
Indentation that keeps mould from pulling off
Patented in 1895 in the United State~ by Charles
Fausel. Used on kid bodies, where a composition or china part
has to swivel within a leather socket.
1920, boudoir-type lady-dolls.
Pile fabric. Pile is usually cut close.
Cotton. with cotton backing and cotton pile.
Bringing clay to point of chemical change from
where it can never be returned to clay.
Any mechanism installed in doll for making sounds.
To become misshapened in firing process.
Moulded heads made completely of wax.
Heads of wood, plaster or composition coated
Very short. sleeveless jacket.
Mouth puckered into whistling expression. Appears
to whistle when sound box in torso is squeezed.
A tongue that vibrates when the doll is moved.
Old term for fired porcelain or bisque.
Hair arrangement on doll.
German for eyelashes. Found on Simon and Halbig
heads probably intended for quality market.
Made between 1910 and 1920. One eye closed. Smiling
Eyes close by action of wire lever that protrudes
from side of body orcrotch. String sometimes
attached to wire inside body. Steiner dolls with wire-eyed mechanism
are most well- known.
Wooden dolls with black hair and undetailed faces.
Cheap, jointed, wooden dolls with black hair
made in Switzerland and Germany.
Sawdust mixed with a glue binder.
Ribbon with tighter weave along edges to keep
it from raveling. Most good ribbon has woven edges (as opposed
to a fused edge).