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Light, smooth-textured hot-pressed composition introduced in 1916.
Fine-grained sulphate of lime that was ideal for carving. Also used by doll-makers to describe heads cast in plaster of paris.
Alencon Lace
Needlepoint lace outlined with cord.
Describes a complete doll made of bisque; usually small dolls 8 inches or less in height.
Dark, almond-shaped fixed eyes used by Jumeau. Dolls with this type of eyes usually have 'early' ball-jointed bodies.
Soft hair from goat used for early doll wigs.
Item over 75 years old.
Applied ears
Ears attached separately after the moulding of the heads. Used on high quality (usually large) dolls.
Inner frame of wire, metal or wood.
Art dolls
Can refer to child dolls designed by artists, or to adult boudoir-type dolls made in stylized manner.
Manner in which bodies and limbs were joined to provide movement.
Auto Bonnet
Hat with tight, turned-back brim and slightly puffed crown.
Babyland Rag Dolls
Made by Horsman with painted faces but sometimes used to describe any doll of similar type.
A dust ruffle or frill, as of silk or lace, sewed close to the lower edge of a skirt on the inside.
Bald Heads
Dolls with smooth, fully-moulded heads.
Balmoral Boots
Low boots that lace up front. Typical Victorian style ladies boot.
Scarf wrapped around head and over a hat; [bashlyk: an ancient round topped felt bonnet with lappets; bachlik: a hood attached to a cap... Balkans].
Extension of close-fitting bodice below the waistline.
Semi-sheer,lightweight cotton fabric
Curtain across the back of bonnet to shade neck.
Child-like doll with double-jointed or leather body.
Bébé baiser
Kissing doll.
Bébé de chant
Singing doll.
Bébé têteur
Feeding doll.
Bedford cord
Heavy fabric with a lengthwise (warp) ribbed weave that resembles corduroy.
Beefeater hat
Narrow brimmed hat worn by British Yeoman of the Guard and Warders of the Tower of London since the 16thC.. Flat topped medium high crown gathered into a headband.
Bellows Pocket
Pocket made with bellow-like pleats.
Belton type
Bald-headed, French bisque doll. Small holes in crown, possibly for attaching wig or for stringing. [Belton was an early partner of Jumeau, but no connection to these bald-headed dolls has been found].
Bent-limbed baby body
Baby-type body intended to be in sitting position.
Flat circle or pancake-shape hat of felt, felted jersey or fabric, with or without a band. It was shown in 1911 and may have been used before that. Large beret is called a tam-o'-shanter.
Berlin type
Moulded porcelain shoulder heads with soft pink glaze.
Lace or ornamental collar around shoulders.
Porcelain dolls with a round black spot on pate. Used by German collectors to refer to any glazed porcelain dolls. Other collectors describe any dolls made between 1805 and 1840 as Biedermeier.
Coif like cap with ties under the chin, 16 & 17thC; large mob cap.
Bishop Sleeves
Full sleeves gathered in wristband.
Unglazed (white) porcelain (when not soup); [a corruption of biscuit].
Black Light
Type of bulb used with dolls to see repairs through bisque.
Blonde bisque type
Used to describe pink-tinted, unglazed heads with moulded hair and shoulder plate.
Bodice that usually blouses at waistline.
Blouse Waist
Bodice that blouses over waistline.
Blown (glass) eyes
Round glass eyes with stem where blow pipe was broken off. Eye looks like tiny Christmas ball. Used mainly in German dolls and dolls with sleep eyes.
Rosy colour applied as cheek colour or over eyes as shadow.
The soft colour applied to the backs of dolls' hands and tops of feet.
Oval, flat-topped hat with rigid flat brim, typically made of straw braid sailor or a skimmer.
Upper part of dress or underwear.
A very short jacket worn open in the front; hat with conical crown and small brim (when not a dance).
Bonnet dolls
Dolls having moulded hats or bonnets.
Boudoir dolls
Term to describe lady-dolls made in early twentieth century as mascots for adults.
Over-the-shoulder decoration or decorated suspenders.
Patented [French].
Heavy silk with a textured pattern.
Broderie Anglaise
White embroidery, often with eyelets.
Stiff, coarse, inexpensive cotton, heavily sized.
Bust heads
American term for shoulder heads.
Slightly lustered cotton fabric.
Candystore dolls
American term for inexpensive all-bisques in small sizes.
Bonnet with soft crown and stiff brim 19thC; also cape or overcape.
Carriage dolls
Very small dolls in leather cases to amuse on journeys.
Cartoon dolls
Bisque or composition figures made in imitation of cartoon characters of twentieth century.
Cartridge pleats
Tight gathers.
Cascades (of lace)
Many rows of gathered lace.
Soft, lightweight, smooth material of twill weave, usually wool.
Cat's Tongue
Type of brush used for painting mouths on dolls.
Any fired clay product.
Soft, light, silk-and-wool or wool-and-cotton blend fabric.
Literally "hat"; any fancy French hat or bonnet.
Character dolls
First made by Marion Kaulitz in Munich, but now used mainly to describe bisque-headed dolls with realistic expressions made after 1909.
Plain dress doll wore when it was sold; undergarment covering top part of body.
Child doll
Double-jointed or leather-bodied little girl dolls.
China clay
Fine white clay.
China head
American term for glazed porcelain, shoulder-headed dolls.
China mop
Large round brush with soft bristles used to apply face blush on dolls.
China limb
Lower arms and legs of porcelain.
China silk
Thin, plain silk with slight luster.
Loose-fitting outer garment.
Stocking decorations running up from the ankle.
Doll with lips modeled together.
Coat sleeves
Sleeves with two seams. Used on dresses and coats.
Cody Jumeau
Long-faced doll with two-tone mouth (Jumeau Triste). After Buffalo Bill Cody who returned to America from Paris in 1887 with a doll of this type for his daughters.
Collectable Doll
Doll between 35 and 75 years old (Moot). Or any doll?
Colour Rubs
Places where cheek color is rubbed through to expose white bisque.
Columbian dolls
Painted rag. American, circa 1900.
Underbodice with attached drawers.
Can refer to any mixture of wood or paper pulp with glue as binder. Papier mâché is sometimes included.
Pyramid of clay that melts at an exact temperature; used for testing kiln temperatures.
Contemporary clothing
description means clothing made within 10 years of time doll was made, but not doll's original clothes.
Coquette type.
Has large, sideways-glancing eyes, painted or glass.
Corset body
Fabric of body printed with a corset
Designer of fashions for women.
Crêche figures
Figures made for use in crêche scenes (Christmas cribs).
Petticoat made of horsehair or hoop petticoat.
All-bisque figures made in Germany. Similar to Kewpies, with sideways- glancing eyes, but without wings or quiff.
Cut-away head
Method of cutting bisque heads at the crown. Those cut well away at a sharp angle are more highly thought of.
Cuplike wood pieces inserted in legs and arms to make joints work better. Also used as reinforcement.
Damasse silk
Brocade silk fabric.
Small train resulting from fullness at back of skirt.
Deponiert (German) or Deposé (French). Indicates a registered design or trade-mark. French doll makers used this term on heads and shoes.
Dolly-face dolls
German dolls with plump cheeks, open mouths and teeth. They were not modeled after a child, but were an idealized portrait of a child of no particular age.
Doll markings
Doll's birthmark or company identification letters, size and mold numbers.
Dorset Thread Button
Button made of flat metal disk covered with threads radiating from center hole. Thread is wound through hole until no disk shows. Often elaborate designs were worked out with more than one color of thread. Buttons were used on clothing and shoes.
Deutsches Reichs Gebrauchsmuster. (Registered Design.)
Drawn Work
Decoration made by pulling thread out of fabric and hand-stitching remaining thread to make design.
Parts of body pivot around a wooden ball. Another term for "ball-jointed".
Dutch Dolls
Used loosely to describe all types of cheap, jointed, wooden dolls; [Corruption of German word Deutsch].
Opaque body of common clay.
Embroidered ribbon
Ribbon with designs embroidered on or woven in, used as decoration around skirts and as braid on sleeves.
En coeur
Heart-shape neckline.
English net
Fine-mesh fabric made of cotton; background fabric of many types of lace.
En tablier
Skirt trim imitating an apron.
Eyeletted body
Limbs have sew holes that are protected by metal eyelets. Used on quality wax dolls.
Manufacturer of dolls.
Ribbed silk fabric recognized by its cord surface.
Farmer satin
Lustrous cotton fabric used for lining.
Fashion doll
Used to describe French lady-dolls of late nineteenth century. More correctly used as a description for genuine mannequin figures.
Fine lines of eyebrow.
Scarf worn at shoulders or neckline.
Heat clay to vitrification.
Flanders baby
Name sometimes given to jointed wooden dolls.
Flange neck
Neck that opens out at lower edge to be held in place by cloth bodies.
1920's-type dolls with long, shapely legs. Especially used to refer to all-bisques of this type.
Flirting eyes
Eyes that move from side to side.
Flocked hair
Method of simulating hair on baby or boy dolls by coating head with glue and attaching powdered felt.
Flower dolls
Porcelain heads with moulded flowers forming hats.
Glasslike substance that makes colors flow when melted with heat. Also makes colors glossy.
Cord fringe with knots used as trim.
Doll's head mounted on stick. The fabric costume conceals a squeaker.
Fork hands
Describes fmgers of early wooden dolls that are close together and stick-1ike.
Fortune tellers
Any type of doll that carries an assortment of written predictions. The leaves often form the skirt.
Lightweight silk with plain twill or satin weave.
'French' bisque
Late nineteenth-century doll-makers described any quality bisque in this way.
Dress with back closure.
Frozen Charlottes
Immobile figures of indeterminate sex. Usually white porcelain with black, or more rarely, yellow hair.
Fused-edge ribbon
Made by cutting ribbon lengthwise, then using heat to melt edge slightly. Only inexpensive ribbon has fused edge.
Covering for lower leg and top of foot.
Porcelain screen or rack. Wafer of un- fired porcelain is placed on screen or rack, along with greenware heads, for firing. GESSO. Fine plaster used to give a good surface for painting.
Gesland-type body
Jointed wire body that was padded and covered with stockinette.
Gibson girls
Bisque lady-clolls made by Kestner and based on portraits of C. D. Gibson. Also commonly used to describe any lady-dolls of Edwardian period, whose features resemble those of the ladies in The Social Ladder by Charles Dana Gibson, printed in 1902.
Gibson Pleats
Shoulder pleats stitched to yoke depth.
Gigot Sleeves
Long sleeves, full in the upper part and tight over forearm
The glass-like finish applied to earthenware and porcelain, impervious to liquid and smooth to touch.
Unnatural, large round eyes, usually sideways glancing. Good examples have eyes that move by action of lever.
Japanese court or Palace dolls.
Dress, usually with front closure.
Unfired porcelain shape made by pouring slip into mold.
Gretchen Dress-Dress hanging freely from yoke; bodice with high waistline.
Jointed wooden dolls. Early nineteenth century. Usually have yellow or gilt combs in hair.
Ribbed fabric. Cords are heavier than poplin, rounder than faille.
Grosgrain Ribbon
Heavy ribbon with rib running across it used for doll belts, bonnet ties and braid on costumes.
Bodice worn under a jumper or low-necked dress.
Gusseted body
Leather body with insets at joints to allow for movement.
Rubber-type substance obtained from Malaya.
Gypsy Hat
Wide-brim hat with ties extending over the top of the crown and brim, often worn by Gibson-Girl dolls.
Hairline Crack
Tiny crack in bisque.
Hairpin Lace
Type of lace made using hairpins.
Half dolls
Head and torso moulded in one to waist. Fabric upper arms and legs.
Based on drawings by Kate Jordan. Only the arms move. Made in Germanyafter 1914.
Hard paste porcelain
True translucent porcelain made of kaolin, china clay and flux.
Head cones
Tops of bisque heads were left open to fit eye mechanisms and reduce weight. The gap was covered by head cones (pates) of cardboard or, in better dolls, cork. Kestner used plaster cones.
Tight-fitting bonnet with no brim.
Hoof feet
A stylized method of carving the feet of wooden dolls in the eighteenth century.
Hoop petticoat
Underpetticoat with hoops of cane, wire or bone.
Black Kewpies made after 1913.
Flat, woven baskets that doll heads were dried in.
Very hard plaster used to make master molds.
All-bisques in fixed positions. No moving parts.
Literally "unbreakable", but used by many French makers to describe bébés.
Indented into, as numbers pressed into unfired bisque.
Insertion lace
Lace intended to be used between two pieces of fabric rather than as an edging; the style of the lace is the same on both edges.
Incised. Used particularly to describe painted dolls' eyes with incised detail.
Refers usually to dolls with a choice of separate heads. Often sold in box with one body and 3 heads.
Iridescent ribbon
Woven of two colors of silk to give it a changeable effect.
Colored part of eye.
Jewelled head
Shoulder head embedded with glass to give the effect of a necklace.
Short for "Jeune" meaning the younger or junior as in Bru Jne.
Jointed body
Makers used term to describe any moving part, but now used by collectors to describe dolls with moving limbs.
Jumping Jack
Jointed figure of wood or card activated by pulling a string.
Kaiser baby
Collectors jargon for Kämmer and Reinhardt model '100', known to the firm as 'Baby'.
Pure-white clay used for making dolls.
Kaolin vats
Large wood tubs in which clay was left to soak in preparation for making doll heads.
Designed by Rose O'Neill. Have small blue wings and starfish or 'webbed' hands. Hair in quiff.
Furnace designed to heat clay objects to vitrification. Wood was used to heat most old doll kilns, but modern kilns are electric.
Kissing doll
Right arm and hand raise to touch lips and throw a kiss. Put into action by pulling string.
Cotton fabric similar to linen; very fine woven and soft.
Pantalets without body section, only legs.
Decayed vegetation, often found in prepared porcelain slips.
London rag doll (baby)
Wax dolls whose faces were covered by a layer of muslin. Nineteenth century.
Decoration of pottery or porcelain by means of a thin film of metal.
Madame Bourget dolls.
Wooden dolls made in twentieth century in style of eighteenth century.
Lay figure of an artist or male doll used to display costume.
Small or short mantle, usually deeper in back.
Marguerite dolls
Porcelain shoulder heads with large daisies forming their hats.
Head or complete doll mounted on a musical box which is activated when stick on which parts are assembled is swung.
Mask face
Printed or moulded front of head fixed to stuffed fabric back.
Master mould
Mould used to produce other moulds. Originally made of hydrocal but now made of rubber.
Nest of wooden dolls. Russian.
Small French pocket-sized doll no more than 20cm in height.
Dark spots that appear on finished ware, usually caused when porcelain is underfired.
Small French dolls under 14 inches tall.
Milliners model
Term coined by Eleanor St George to describe papier mâché dolls of early nineteenth century, with moulded hair .
Type of colored composition developed by us for making reproduction doll bodies.
When applied to dolls, it means "unplayed-with" condition.
Mob Cap
Gathered circle, usually trimmed with lace. Biggin is an extra-large mob cap.
Thin, lustrous silk fabric.
Modern doll
Doll less than 25 years old.
Corded silk or silk-and-cotton fabric with water- marked effect.
Moiré ribbon
Water-marked ribbon similar to moire silk. Markings come out if pressed with hot iron.
Soft luxurious hair from the Angora goat. Used for doll wigs.
Moulded hair
Dolls with hair formed in the mold. Hair was not added.
Mother Hubbard
Free-hanging dress, cloak or night- gown gathered on yoke.
Motschmann type
Dolls made in Europe after 1851 in imitation of Japanese baby dolls. Fabric inserts in porcelain body sections allowed movement.
Moulded teeth
Teeth moulded in one with the head rather than inserted as in cheaper dolls.
Moulded tongue
Tongue that is either moulded in one with lower lip, as in an open-mouthed doll, or protruding slightly from an 'open-closed' mouth.
Moulded yoke
Decoration suggesting lace collars, etc., found on good bisque shoulder heads.
Mousseline(s) de soie
Sheer silk fabric similar to chiffon; (literally "muslin of silk").
Moving mouth
Several dolls patented with moving teeth or lips.
Moving heads
All-bisque dolls whose heads were fixed to immobile bodies by elastic.
Multi-faced dolls
Several faces on sides of one head that are turned by a knob at the top of the head or by a string.
A selection of wigs sometimes accompanied better-quality dolls.
In the UK refers to a thin loose-weave fabric like cheesecloth.
In America used to describe any of various sturdy cotton fabrics of plain weave, used especially for sheets. This term is very confusing for the English when used in quilting.
Thin, lightweight cotton.
Necklace dolls
Moulded necklace on shoulder plate.
Needle moulding
Modelling of features of cloth-faced dolls by small stitches.
Ne Plus Ultra joints
Patented in the United States by Sarah Robinson in 1883. Usually a rivet hip joint used on leather bodies, but sometimes also used at knee and elbow.
Nettle cloth
Used by Käthe Kruse for waterproof dolls' heads which were stuffed with deer hair and reinforced with metal.
Dolls whose heads nod on a pivot. Usually mantelpiece ornaments.
Normandie Bonnet
Hat with high, half-moon-shape puffed crown with many variations of brims.
Nun's veiling
Lightweight wool fabric made with plain weave in plain colors, similar to wool batiste.
Open-closed mouths
Mouth-Lips parted as if open, but no opening in bisque.
Sheer, stiff, lightweight cotton.
Artist's modeled doll or doll head used to make mold.
Oval eyes
Similar to paperweight eyes, but no crystal added over pupil. Used mainly in antique lady dolls and some very early Steiner dolls.
Palette Knife
Small, flat knife, similar to spreader, used by painters.
True mannequin dolls. Usually full or half life-size.
A Jumping Jack.
Paperweight eyes
Term for good-quality, early, flat-backed type of eye. Almond-shaped, with bulge over eyeball of crystal. giving depth to eyes. Usually only on French dolls or dolls for the French market.
Papier mâché
Paper reduced to fibrous pulp, mixed with chalk and sand. Used by doll-collectors to refer to dolls of the 'Milliners model' type.
White, unglazed porcelain as used for moulded shoulder heads.
French lady-dolls of the late nineteenth century.
Old term used for soft clay pressed in molds.
The crown of the head. Cork or other substance used to round top of head where bisque was cut off. Often cork for French dolls and cardboard for German dolls.
Peau de Soie-Heavy silk with fine, grainy surface produced by tiny cords. Long-wearing and serviceable.
Pedlar dolls
Dolls that have a tray or basket containing goods for sale.
Can refer to pegs holding elastic for stringing or small, dowel-type jointing as used in Grödnertals or Wooden Tops.
An outergarment or coat, for either men or women. Pelisses could have long sleeves or no sleeves at all. The pelisse was fitted across the chest and could be any length between mid thigh and ankle. Pelisses were often trimmed with fur or military-style frogging and braiding. Compare pilisse.
Penny woodens
Used here to describe mid-nineteenth-century dolls of similar quality to Grödnertals, but without the carved combs.
Cotton fabric with plain weave, usually recognized by firm construction, smooth, dull finish and printed pattern. Also available in plain colors.
Underskirt with waistband.
Piano babies
Ornamental bisque figurines, often immobile.
Piano dolls
Small figures of wood or card with bristle legs, that appear to dance when piano keys are moved. Also known as Pigmées Musico Dancemanes.
Picot-edge ribbon
Ribbon with looped thread along both edges, used to tie bonnets, edge dresses and sashes.
Picture hat
Hat or bonnet with wide, off-the-face brim.
Pigeon toes
Usually refers to early nineteenth-century waxed dolls, with turned-in toes, caused by the structure of their fabric bodies.
Cloak with cape.
Pincushion heads
Ornamental half figures of bisque or porcelain. Could be fixed to pincushions, crumb brushes, vanity bags or lampshades.
Pink Lustre
Very delicate, uneven pink shading to basic white-glazed porcelain heads.
Pinning Blanket
Long petticoat slit down front. Made to wrap around and over infant's legs.
Plain-woven ribbon
Weave similar to plain fabric. Silk ribbon is often plain woven. These ribbons are good for thread pulling.
Plaster mould
Reverse form of doll made of plaster of Paris used to duplicate shape. Doll heads were produced by pouring molds with liquid clay.
Panel of contrasting-color fabric down the front of dress or bodice.
Plisse-edge ribbon
Ribbon with bit of ruffling on one or both sides, used on bonnets and dresses for decoration.
Poke Bonnet
Hat with projecting front brim, high, rising small crown and ties under chin.
Dress with overskirt draped in back.
Red paint used to give rosiness to cheeks and lips. Used on antique and reproduc- tion dolls.
Mediumweight silk fabric in plain weave distinguished by irregular threads and natural beige color.
Fine-ribbed silk, wool or cotton fabric.
Porcelain slip
Form of liquid clay made by adding water to porcelain. Slip is poured into molds. This replaced method of pressing paste clay in molds.
Portrait doll
Head modelled on a known person, e.g. Lord Roberts or Sara Penfold. Erroneously used to describe a miscellany of bisque and porcelain heads that have a slight resemblance to beauties of the period, e.g. Alexandra, Eugenie or Jenny Lind.
Potassium Silicate
Chemical added to wood chips to make doll's hands hard and less breakable. Used by Jumeau.
Wad of wool inside china-silk covering used to apply cheek colour to porcelain dolls with a light, gentle up-and-down dabbing motion.
Doll's head mounted on stick. Musical movement or squeaker concealed under clothes. Also a swaddling baby of wood or composition.
A lady-cloll.
Usually refers to bisque-headed doll with a pouting expression and closed mouth.
Pre-coloured or self-coloured bisque
Pink colouring in substance of bisque rather than applied.
Princess Style-Gored, flowing style without waistline.
Printed dolls
Refers to rag dolls bought in sheet form.
Pumpkin heads
Waxed composition with blonde, moulded hair. Heads made in shallow, two-part moulds and consequently present a flattened appearance. Also squash heads.
Black center of doll eye.

Queen Anne Collar
Square-cut collar.
Built up, as numbers on head raised above surface.
Exact copy. Doll made in mould made from old doll, with identical painting, and clearly marked with date and maker.
Retractable tongue
Tongue pivots back into mouth when doll is laid down.
Open-front gown.
Rococo and variegated ribbon
Ribbons that change color. Rococo changes when moved from side to side. Variegated changes when moved from end to end.
Child's garment with bloomers instead of skirt at bottom.
Rooted hair
Set into wax or plastic material, either singly or in tufts. Lashes, eyebrows and beards could all be treated similarly.
Rupprecht dolls
Figures of Dutch origin dressed completely in fur. Were attendants to Santa Claus.
Sand baby
A doll whose head was weighted with sand. Made by Käthe Kruse.
A twilled fabric which uses different colors in the warp and weft, thus allowing the fabric to subtly change colors as the fabric moves (variously, sarsenet, sarcenet). Americans imply cotton but old English use seems to mean a fine silk used for linings.
Cotton fabric with luster on right-side. Used for dressing French dolls.
Lustrous silk material in satin weave.
Satin ribbon
Ribbon with shiny. smooth surface. which can be on one or both sides of the ribbon. It is the most- common ribbon used on dolls. Terms single-faced and double-faced are used with satin. meaning it is shiny on one or both sides.
Scarf dolls
Moulded shoulder heads wearing a scarf or turban.
Schilling joints
Method of fixed wooden or composition arms to a body of leather or cloth, 1884.
Light fabric of linen, cotton, (or rayon) usually striped and slightly puckered
Seersucker ribbon
Puckered ribbon as above that does not lie flat because thread in some sections are drawn tighter. It is used most often as dress decoration and braid.
Set eyes
Eyes that do not move. Stationary eyes. Fixed eyes.
Sewing companion
Dressed dolls whose costume is a holder for scissors, thread, etc.
(French). Without government guarantee. (Used in conjunction with Breveté).
Chemise or underskirt.
Shoulder heads
Head and shoulder plate of same substance. Sewn or stuck to body.
Skittle doll
Carved, one-piece wooden dolls of primitive type. Skittle-shaped.
Sleep eyes
Eyes that open and close.
Snow babies
All-bisque figures wearing snow suits of grog. Can be wire-jointed, or, more usually, immobile.
Spoon hands
Embryonic hands where only the thumb is carved separately.
Starfish hands
Early 20th C. Hands modelled to look almost webbed. As in Kewpies.
Society (French).
Steuber body
Boots and stockings form an integral part of the lower legs.
Arms and legs move only at shoulders and hip.
Stiff necks
Terms for dolls whose heads are moulded in one wid1 body. Usually refers to all-bisques.
Omamental. stiffened panel work used as front of bodice.
Straight-limbed baby
Legs modelled almost straight so that the doll can stand.
Straight wrists
Unjointed wrists; also called gauntlet-type wrists.
Stringing loops
Bisque loops modelled in one with limbs for neater stringing of all-bisques.Some baby dolls made by Heubach have stringing loop on neck.
Figurines that sway from side to side.
Swivel necks
Turn in socket at base.
Swivel pegs
The top part of the arm or leg of a Grödnertal that fits into the torso and allows movement.
Plain. closely woven. stiff silk fabric with dull luster.
Large beret.
Inexpensive gauzelike fabric used to dress German dolls.
Toddler body
Plump, double-jointed body, often with shaped thighs to fit neatly against body.
Tea-cup dolls
See under Frozen Charlottes.
Combination undergarment; (when not a bear).
Terra Cotta
Fired red clay.
Jumeau mark. Tête Jumeau. (literally "head").
German all-bisque with well-moulded hand. Thumb fits into open mouth. Some have rubber hands.
Small. round. close-fitting French hat with or without brim.
Doll with head at top and bottom. Unwanted head covered by skirt.
Indentation that keeps mould from pulling off clay model.
Universal joints
Patented in 1895 in the United State~ by Charles Fausel. Used on kid bodies, where a composition or china part has to swivel within a leather socket.

1920, boudoir-type lady-dolls.
Pile fabric. Pile is usually cut close.
Cotton. with cotton backing and cotton pile.
Bringing clay to point of chemical change from where it can never be returned to clay.
Voice box
Any mechanism installed in doll for making sounds.
To become misshapened in firing process.
Wax poured
Moulded heads made completely of wax.
Heads of wood, plaster or composition coated with wax.
Very short. sleeveless jacket.
Whistling dolls
Mouth puckered into whistling expression. Appears to whistle when sound box in torso is squeezed.
Whistling tongue
A tongue that vibrates when the doll is moved.
Old term for fired porcelain or bisque.
Hair arrangement on doll.
German for eyelashes. Found on Simon and Halbig heads probably intended for quality market.
Winking doll
Made between 1910 and 1920. One eye closed. Smiling mouths.
Eyes close by action of wire lever that protrudes from side of body orcrotch. String sometimes attached to wire inside body. Steiner dolls with wire-eyed mechanism are most well- known.
Wooden Kates
Wooden dolls with black hair and undetailed faces.
Wooden tops
Cheap, jointed, wooden dolls with black hair made in Switzerland and Germany.
Wood pulps
Sawdust mixed with a glue binder.
Woven-Edge ribbon
Ribbon with tighter weave along edges to keep it from raveling. Most good ribbon has woven edges (as opposed to a fused edge).
and and

Yeux fibres
Good-quality eyes with a white-rayed iris.